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George Washington and the Culper Spy Ring

Research Materials about George Washington, the Culper Spy Ring, and the American Revolutionary War



Tyler, Beverly. Deciphering the Auxiliary Spies of the Culper Spy Ring. Times Beacon Record Newsmedia. August 28, 2017.

Tyler, Beverly (Winter 2015). A Case for Anna Smith StrongThe Historian: A Publication of the Three Village Historical Society, pp. 4-5.

Tyler, Beverly. (2014). The Setauket Spy Ring Story.

Articles about the Culper Spy Ring from the Journal of the American Revolution, including:

Andrlik, Todd (2014). James Rivington: King's Printer and Patriot Spy? Journal of the American Revolution.

Krueger, Allison (July 8, 2016). Tracing the Origins of a Revolutionary War Spy Ring on Long IslandThe New York Times.

Lengel, Edward. (June 2016). Patriots Under Cover. American History. Vol. 51 Issue 2, pp. 26-31.

Schellhammer, Michael. (2014). Abraham Woodhull: The Spy Named Samuel CulperJournal of the American Revolution.


(March 1865). The Traitors of the Revolution. Historical Magazine, 9, 89-90.

(November 1882). Colonel Varick and Arnold's Treason.  Magazine of American History, 8, 717-733.

(January, 1882). Bibliography of Major André. Magazine of American History, 8, 61-72.

(October, 1887). Harvey Birch Not Enoch Crosby. Magazine of American History, 18, 341.

(December 1910). Andre and his landing place. Magazine of History, 12, 331-335.

(April, 1931).  Two spies: Nathan Hale and Robert Townsend. Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association, 12, 122-128.

Arner, Robert D. (1976). The Death of Major André: Some Eighteenth-Century Views. Early American Literature9,52-67.

Bacon, Edgar Mayhew.(1931). Andre: A Hundred and Fifty Years Ago. Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association, 12, 160-164.

Biddle, Charles J. (1857). General Washington and Major Andre. Historical Magazine, 1, 193-205.

Burke, John A. & Meyer, Andrea. (2009). Spies of the revolution. New York State Archives Magazine, 9(2).

Burnett, Edmund Cody. (1917). Ciphers of the Revolutionary Period. American Historical Review, 22, 329-334.

Campbell, Charles A. (July, 1880). Smith's House at Haverstraw, N.Y.: Washington's Headquarters. Magazine of American History, 5, 21-33. 

Crary, Catherine S. (January, 1959). The Tory and the Spy: The Double Life of James Rivington. William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Ser., 16, 61-72.

Cray, Robert E. Jr. (1997). Major John Andre and the three captors: Class dynamics and revolutionary memory wars in the early republic, 1780-1831. Journal of the Early Republic17(3). University of Pennsylvania Press.

Dawson, Henry B., ed. (June, 1865). Capture of Major Andre: Statements of Williams and Van Wart. Historical Magazine, 9, 177-180.

Deane, James E. (July, 1887) Enoch Crosby Not a Myth. Magazine of American History, 18, 73-75.

Delancey, Edward F., ed. (1883,1884). Sir Henry Clinton's original secret record of private daily intelligence. Magazine of American History, 10 (1883), pp. 327-342, 409-419, 497-507; 11 (1884), pp. 53-70, 156-167, 247-257, 342-351, 433-444, 533-544; 12 (1884), pp. 72-79, 162-175.

Dykman, J. O.(June, July, August, 1889). The last twelve days of Major John André. Magazine of American History, 21 (June 1889), pp. 494-498; 22 (July, August 1889), pp.49-57, 148-157.

Gigoff, Dan, & Bentrup, Nancy. (2003). Washington’s web. U.S. News and World Report, 134(3), 52-54.

H., C., ed.(October, 1857). Capture of Andre. Historical Magazine, 1, 293-295.

Halvorson, Sean. (2010). Dangerous Patriots: Washington's Hidden Army during the American RevolutionIntelligence and National Security, 25(10), 123-146.

Hatfield, Guy. (May, 1887). Harvey Birch and the myth of Enoch Crosby. Magazine of American History, 17, 431-433.

Holloway, Charlotte Molyneux. (May-June, 1900). The first sacrifice of the revolution. Nathan Hale, The Patriot Martyr Spy. Connecticut Magazine, 6, 224-236.

Hutson, James (2003). Nathan Hale revisited— A Tory's account of the arrest of the first American spyInformation BulletinThe Library of Congress.

Jacobs, David W. (2006). Who Was Agent 355? (Am Rev). Broadside, the Newsletter of the American Revolution Round Table

Johnston, Henry P. (February 1882). The Secret Service of the revolution. Magazine of American History, 8, 95-105.

Kahn, David. (December, 1984). Washington's New York spy net. Military History, 1 (10), 56-57, 62.

Kaplan, Roger. (1990). The hidden war: British intelligence operations during the American Revolution. William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Ser., 115-138.

Lawson, John L. (1958). The 'remarkable mystery' of James Rivington, 'spy'. Journalism Quarterly, 35, 316-323, 394.

Lengel, Edward G. (2009). Spymaster in chief. Military History, 26(2), 26-35.

Norwood, Mary E., ed. (December, 1879).  Arnold the traitor, and André the sufferer: Correspondence between Josiah Quincy, Jared Sparks and Benjamin Tallmadge. Magazine of American History, 3, 747-759.

O’Toole, G. J. A. (1989). Benjamin Franklin: American spymaster or British mole? lnternational Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 3(1), 45-53.

Paltsits, Victor Hugo. (May, 1935). The use of invisible ink for secret writing during the American Revolution. New York Public Library Bulletin, 39, 361-364.

Patrick, Louise S. (summer, 1907). Secret Service of the American Revolution. Connecticut Magazine, 11, 265-274.

Paulding, John. (November 1857). The Capture of Andre. Historical Magazine, 1, 331-336.

Pickering, James H., ed. (January 1966). Enoch Crosby, secret agent of the neutral ground: His own story.  New York History, 47, 51-73.

Raymond, Marcius D. (1903), David Williams and the capture of Andre: A paper read before the Tarrytown Historical Society.

Reynolds, Larry J. (Spring 1992).  Patriot and criminals, criminal and Patriots: Representations of the case of Major Andre"South Central Review9, Historicizing Literary Contexts, 57–84.

Sayle, Edward F. (1983). George Washington, manager of intelligence. Studies in lntel-ligence, 27(4), 1-10.

Sohasky, Kate E. (2010). A conduct incompatible with their character: Patriots, Loyalists, & Spies: Espionage in the American Revolution and the underlying social & ideological revolution in the American Colonies. Berkley Undergraduate Journal, 22(2). Berkeley Undergraduate Journal, Office of Undergraduate Research, UC Berkeley.

Stevens, John Austin. (December 1879). The seventy-six stone house at Tappan." Magazine of American History, 3, 743-746.

Stockbridge, J. C. (December 1879). The Case of Major Andre. Magazine of American History, 3, 739-742.

Trees, Andy (2000), Benedict Arnold, John André, and his three yeoman captors: A sentimental journey or American virtue defined? Early American Literature (The University of North Carolina Press) 35(3), 246-273.

Wilcox, C. DeW. (July 1915). The ethics of Major André's mission. Magazine of History, 21, 40-50.

Wilson, Lavalette. (February 1885). André's landing-place at Haverstraw: A mooted question settled. Magazine of American History, 13, 173-176.

Winfield, C. H., & André, J. (1904). The block-house by Bull's Ferry: Including the "Cow chace" by Major Andre; with notes and illustrations and a map. New York: W. Abbatt.

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