According to MLA style, you must have a Works Cited page at the end
of your research paper. All entries in the Works Cited page must
correspond to the works cited in your main text.
- Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your
research paper. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name,
page number header as the rest of your paper.
- Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited
or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the
top of the page.
- Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries.
- Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent.
- List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed. If you refer
to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the
page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50.
Additional Basic Rules New to MLA 2009
- For every entry, you must determine the Medium of Publication. Most
entries will likely be listed as Print or Web sources, but other
possibilities may include Film, CD-ROM, or DVD.
- Writers are no longer required to provide URLs for Web entries.
However, if your instructor or publisher insists on them, include them
in angle brackets after the entry and end with a period. For long URLs,
break lines only at slashes.
- If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally
issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database,
you should type the online database name in italics. You do not need to
provide subscription information in addition to the database name.
Capitalization and Punctuation
- Capitalize each word in the titles of articles, books, etc, but do
not capitalize articles, short prepositions, or conjunctions unless one
is the first word of the title or subtitle: Gone with the Wind, The Art of War, There Is Nothing Left to Lose.
- New to MLA 2009: Use italics (instead of
underlining) for titles of larger works (books, magazines) and
quotation marks for titles of shorter works (poems, articles)
Listing Author Names
Entries are listed by author name (or, for entire edited
collections, editor names). Author names are written last name first;
middle names or middle initials follow the first name:
Levy, David M.
Wallace, David Foster
Do not list titles (Dr., Sir, Saint, etc.) or degrees (PhD,
MA, DDS, etc.) with names. A book listing an author named "John
Bigbrain, PhD" appears simply as "Bigbrain, John"; do, however, include
suffixes like "Jr." or "II." Putting it all together, a work by Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. would be cited as "King, Martin Luther, Jr.,"
with the suffix following the first or middle name and a comma.
More than One Work by an Author
If you have cited more than one work by a particular author, order
the entries alphabetically by title, and use three hyphens in place of
the author's name for every entry after the first:
Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. [...]
---. A Rhetoric of Motives. [...]
When an author or collection editor appears both as the sole author
of a text and as the first author of a group, list solo-author entries
Heller, Steven, ed. The Education of an E-Designer.
Heller, Steven and Karen Pomeroy. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design.
Work with No Known Author
Alphabetize works with no known author by their title; use a
shortened version of the title in the parenthetical citations in your
paper. In this case, Boring Postcards USA has no known author:
Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulations. [...]
Boring Postcards USA. [...]
Burke, Kenneth. A Rhetoric of Motives. [...]
Copyright ©1995-2009 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University.